Titration is an important analytical method that is widely used for pharmaceutical assay testing. However, many USP monographs still refer to manual visual endpoint titration methods. Such manual procedures are not only tedious to perform but also more prone to human error. A free white paper by Metrohm summarizes the steps involved converting an existing manual titration procedure to semi-automated or automated titration procedures and gives three practical examples.
Traditionally, the reaction endpoint of a titration is detected visually adding a color indicator to the titration solution. By contrast, modern titration uses a digital buret, the endpoint is detected by an electrochemical sensor, and the results are calculated by a digital titrator. This automatic procedure is faster, more accurate, and today’s stringent requirements regarding data integrity (ALCOA) and regulatory compliance are met with ease.
The present white paper addresses the following topics:
- How to replace the color indicator by a suitable sensor
- How to optimize sample sizes
- How to set the right titration parameters, depending on the kind of titration, titrant, and sensor
- How to select the right stop volume for the titration in order to save chemicals