Cobalt is an essential element for humans because it is a component of vitamin B12. While small overdoses of cobalt compounds are only slightly toxic to humans, larger doses from 25–30 mg per day may lead to skin, lung, and stomach diseases, as well as liver, heart, and kidney damage, and even cancerous growths. The same is valid for nickel, which can lead to inflammation at higher concentrations. Drinking a large amount of water containing nickel can cause discomfort and nausea. In the EU the legislation specifies 0.02 mg/L as the limit value for the nickel concentration in drinking water. This concentration can be reliably determined with the method described in this Application Bulletin.