Cadmium and lead in drinking water – Simultaneous determination by voltammetry using a Bi drop electrode

To reduce the toxic effects of cadmium on the human body, as well as to limit the neurotoxic effects of lead, the provisional guideline values in the World Health Organization’s «Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality» are set to a maximum concentration of 3 µg/L for cadmium and 10 µg/L for lead. The completely mercury-free Bi drop electrode takes the next step towards converting voltammetric analysis into a non-toxic approach for heavy metal detection. Using this environmentally friendly sensor for anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) allows the simultaneous determination of Cd and Pb in drinking water. The outstanding sensitivity is more than sufficient to monitor the provisional WHO guideline values.