Product Improvement & Protection

Product Specification Test as per Regulatory Requirements

The impetus to develop globally accepted standards is greater than ever before. Standards are technical documents of agreed-upon solutions that have already been time-tested and proven. ASTM, UOP, ISO, IP and other industry-recognized standards are commonly used for product quality control testing. They facilitate global commerce and are the basis of sound economies. 

Refining product testing is demanding and requires precise and reliable analysis to meet regulatory compliance. Metrohm is actively involved with ASTM so we are aware of these challenges and deliver solutions that improve accuracy and efficiency.

Standards & Methods for the Petroleum Industry

The importance of fossil fuels is reflected by the large number of standards relating to them. Metrohm, as a leading manufacturer of analytical instruments, offers long-standing application know-how for quality control of fossil fuels.

Our comprehensive Standards and Methods Table gives you the correct standard and method for each parameter determined in the refining and petroleum industries - from TAN value to water content. 

> Go to Refining Standards and Methods Table

Crude Oil


Crude oil is the primary input to the refinery. Depending on its quality, it is commonly classified as sour or sweet crude oil. The crude oil type is a decisive factor in the refinery design & operating conditions as well as the product yields. Crude oil characterization is therefore critical in the refinery industry.

Total Acid Number Determination in Crude Oil
The TAN value in petroleum products can either be determined using potentiometric titration according to ASTM D664 or by thermometric titration. Compared to ASTM D664, thermometric titration is a cleaner, more economical approach.

> Not convinced? Compare potentiometric and thermometric titration for TAN determination

Interested in Determination of Moisture, Salt, or Organically Bound Chlorine in Crude Oil? > Click here

Kerosene & Jet Fuel

Kerosene Jet Fuel

Determination of Damaging Compounds in Fuels

Sulfur compounds in petroleum products not only have an unpleasant odor, they are also environmentally damaging and promote corrosion. Fuels also contain mercaptans which are oxidized by iodine and thus falsely indicate a water content that is too high.

Metrohm has many years of experience determining various compounds in Jet Fuel and Kerosene. We'll make sure that your values are accurate.  

Download our Fuel application notes for more details

Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)


Water Content in Liquefied Gases

Water is a contaminant in fuels because it promotes corrosion and leads to undesired reactions in the fuel. The challenge with LPG lies in the sample measurement and the associated phase transition from liquid to gas. Determining trace levels of water in liquefied gases is important to ensure accurate results.

Organically Bound Halides in LPG by Combustion IC

Similar to kerosene and jet fuels, the burning of sulfur-containing fuels leads to the emission of air-polluting sulfur oxides into the atmosphere. High sulfur concentrations have an adverse effect on the ignition of fuels and their stability during storage. Halogen concentrations, on the other hand, must be controlled because they promote the risk of corrosion.

> Download a list of application notes for LPG

Diesel & Biodiesel


Diesel and Biodiesel production involves many potentially efficiency-decreasing or dangerous steps if not monitored properly. The presence of water in biofuels, for example, reduces their calorific value and increases the corrosion rate - which can in turn lead to pipe failure. Furthermore, the production of biodiesel from vegetable oils and animal fats causes formation of free and bound glycerol as by-products. Glycerol contamination exhilarates fuel aging and causes deposits in the engine and blocked filters. 

Another potentially harmful pitfall of biodiesel production are calcium and magnesium impurities that result mainly from the use of the water employed in biodiesel washing to extract water soluble foreign substances such as methanol and glycerol. In higher concentrations, these metals cause operating problems in the engine.

Monitoring of these compounds is critical to ensure safe operation and a pure end product. 

> See what you can do to make sure you run a safe production environment.

Bioethanol & Gasoline Blend


Bioethanol is mixed with gasoline in various ratios to reduce both the demand for gasoline and environmental pollution. Denatured fuel ethanol may contain additives such as corrosion inhibitors and detergents as well as contaminants from manufacturing that can affect the acidity of finished ethanol fuel. 

Contaminants in the form of inorganic chloride and sulfate salts are corrosive and lead to deposits and blockages in the fuel filter and injection nozzles. Very dilute aqueous solutions of low molecular mass organic acids, such as acetic acid, are also highly corrosive to many metals. It is important to keep such acids at a very low level.

Application Examples include sulfate and chloride determination and determination of anions, cations and organic acids in biofuels.

> Discover the full Bioethanol application library

Near-IR Blending Applications


Optimize Your Refinery Processes

During the blending process, different fractions of the crude oil distillation are mixed together in order to produce the ready-to-sell diesel or gasoline grades. The most economical results can be achieved by adding monitoring equipment directly to the process line.

>See how online Near-IR Spectroscopy can control the entire process and ensure a high quality end product directly from within the process stream