Zinc, nickel, calcium, and magnesium in borated water of a pressurized water reactor (PWR)

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In pressurized water reactors (PWRs), light water is used as primary coolant. Boron (as boric acid) readily absorbs neutrons and is added to the coolant to control reactivity. Lithium hydroxide assures a pH value greater than 7 to prevent corrosion. This application allows to measure sub-ppb levels of zinc, nickel, calcium, and magnesium besides high boric acid and lithium hydroxide concentrations.