Zinc, nickel, calcium, and magnesium in borated water of a pressurized water reactor (PWR)

In pressurized water reactors (PWRs), light water is used as primary coolant. Boron (as boric acid) readily absorbs neutrons and is added to the coolant to control reactivity. Lithium hydroxide assures a pH value greater than 7 to prevent corrosion. This application allows to measure sub-ppb levels of zinc, nickel, calcium, and magnesium besides high boric acid and lithium hydroxide concentrations.