Calcium, magnesium, and total hardness in water – Automated determination using the Cu-ISE and two different titrants

Water hardness is often determined photometrically using two different indicators and while performing the determination at two different pH values. Additionally, the determination itself is subjective, as the color change is determined by the analyst and not by an analytical device.

This application note introduces a more robust option to easily assess calcium, magnesium, and total hardness in water by using the Cu-ISE and two different titrants. Sample preparation is identical for both analyses and can therefore be automated without any issues.