Determination of cadmium and lead in water samples by anodic stripping voltammetry with a Bi drop electrode

Heavy metals, particularly cadmium and lead, are known to be highly toxic to humans. Therefore, controlling the cadmium and lead content in drinking water is of utmost importance. In many countries, the limit in drinking water for cadmium is between 3–5 µg/L, and for lead it is between 5–15 µg/L. These trace concentrations can reliably be determined with the method described in this Application Bulletin. The determination is carried out by anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) using the non-toxic Bi drop electrode in a slightly acidic electrolyte.