Calcium and sulfate in flue-gas desulfuration

This Process Application Note deals with the online monitoring of calcium and sulfate in flue gas scrubbing solutions using titration. Other contaminants that can be measured are sulfite, chloride, and chlorine. Low concentrations of heavy metals such as cadmium, zinc, copper, and lead can be measured in the ppb/ppm range with the ADI 2045VA Process Analyzer using voltammetry.