Reference electrodes and their usage

A reference electrode has a stable and well-defined electrochemical potential (at constant temperature), against which the applied or measured potentials in an electrochemical cell are referred. A good reference electrode is therefore stable and non-polarizable. In other words, the potential of such an electrode will remain stable in the used environment and also upon the passage of a small current. This application note lists the most used reference electrodes, together with their range of use.