Antimony and bismuth in electroless nickel baths

Electroless nickel plating is an important and well established process in the surface finishing industry. In the past the addition of small amounts of lead has widely been used to stabilize the plating bath. With the increasing number of restrictions in recent years on the use of lead in consumber products, particularly electronics, alternative stabilizers were developed and introduced. Two of the stabilizers used as lead replacement are antimony and bismuth. They can be used as a single additive or in combination with each other or iodate. This method allows the determination of antimony and bismuth directly in the plating bath sample by anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). The method is simple and fast, however sensitive and robust